Pineapple (Ananas Comosus)

Origin
The pineapple (Ananas comosus: Bromeliaceae) is one of the most popular tropical fruits. The name pineapple in English (or piña in Pineapple1Spanish) comes from the similarity of the fruit to a pinecone. Ananas comes from anana, the Tupi word for the fruit, meaning “excellent fruit”. Comosus means tufted and refers to the stem of the fruit.

This fruit is native to southern Brazil and Paraguay where its wild relatives occur. Portuguese had introduced the pineapple to India and Java, and the fruit, delighted with the climate that so closely mirrored its conditions of origin, spread throughout the Far East. The Indians carried it to the West Indies before Columbus arrived. In 1493 Columbus found the fruit on the island of Guadeloupe and carried it back to Spain and it was spread around the world on sailing ships that carried it for protection against scurvy. The Spanish introduced it into the Philippines and may have taken it to Hawaii and Guam early in the 16th Century. The pineapple reached England in 1660 and began to be grown in greenhouses for its fruit around 1720.

Characteristics
Growth Habit

growthThe pineapple plant is a herbaceous perennial, 0.75 to 1.5 m high with a spread of 1 to 1.2 m. It is essentially a short, stout stem with a rosette of waxy, strap like leaves. It is mostly grown at low elevations in areas with a temperature range of 15 to 30 ºC. Pineapple is tolerant to drought because of the special water storage cells. They can be grown with a wide range of rainfall from 600-2500 mm/annum, the optimum being 1000-1500 mm. Pineapple can be grown in a wide range of soils, but does not tolerate water logging. It can be grown as a pure crop on plantation scale or as an intercrop in coconut gardens.

Foliage
The long-pointed leaves are 0.5 – 1.82 m in length, usually needle tipped and generally bearing sharp, up curved spines on the margins. They may be all green or variously striped with red, yellow or ivory down the middle or near the margins. As the stem continues to grow, it acquires at its apex a compact tuft of stiff, short leaves called the crown or top. Occasionally a plant may bear two or more heads instead of the normal one.

Flowers
At blooming time, the stem elongates and enlarges near the apex and puts forth an inflorescence of small purple or red flowers. The flowers are pollinated by humming-birds, and these flowers usually develop small, hard seeds. Seeds are generally not found in commercially grown pineapple.

800px-Ananas_comosus_flowerFruit
The oval to cylindrical-shaped, compound fruit develops from many small fruits fused together. It is both juicy and fleshy with the stem serving as the fibrous core. The tough, waxy rind may be dark green, yellow, orange-yellow or reddish when the fruit is ripe. The flesh ranges from nearly white to yellow. In size the fruits are up to 30 cm long and weigh 0.5 to 4.5 kg or more.

Area, Production & Productivity
The important pineapple growing countries of the world are the Hawaiian Islands, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Brazil, Ghana, Kenya, Mexico, Taiwan, South Africa, Australia, Puerto Rico and India.
In India, it is grown in Karnataka, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Kerala, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland. It is also cultivated on limited areas in the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu, Goa and Orissa. National level area, production and productivity of pineapple are given below.

Area, Production and Productivity of Pineapple in India
(1987-1988, 1991-1992 to 2010-2011)

Year

Area
(‘000 HA)

% of Total Fruit Area

Production
(‘000 MT)

% of Total Fruit Production

Productivity
(In MT/HA)

1987-88

45.7

1.6

578.0

2.1

12.6

1991-92

57.1

2.0

768.5

2.7

13.5

1992-93

59.4

1.9

859.0

2.6

14.5

1993-94

62.2

2.0

1006.7

2.7

16.2

1994-95

66.4

1.5

1055.2

2.7

15.9

1995-96

71.2

2.1

1071.1

2.6

15.0

1996-97

68.7

1.9

924.6

2.3

13.5

1997-98

69.3

1.9

937.1

2.2

13.5

1998-99

74.2

2.0

1006.4

2.3

13.6

1999-00

75.5

1.9

1025.4

2.2

13.6

2000-01

78.1

2.0

1221.1

2.8

15.5

2001-02

77.2

1.9

1182.3

2.7

15.3

2002-03

79.8

2.1

1171.7

2.6

14.7

2003-04

80.9

1.7

1234.2

2.7

15.3

2004-05

82.8

1.7

1278.9

2.6

15.4

2005-06

82.4

1.5

1262.6

2.3

15.3

2006-07

87.0

1.6

1362.0

2.3

15.7

2007-08

80.0

1.4

1245.0

1.9

15.6

2008-09

84.0

1.4

1341.0

2.0

16.0

2009-10

91.9

1.5

1386.8

1.9

15.1

2010-11

89.0

1.4

1415.0

1.9

15.9

Source : Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. (p. 255)

India ranked sixth with a share of about 8 % of the world production of pineapples. The total area under pineapple cultivation in India was 89000 hectares with a production of about 1415000 t and productivity 15.9 t/ha during 2010-11.  India exports pineapple mainly to Nepal, Maldives, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Oman, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Zambia, Pakistan and Qatar. ‘Kew’ and ‘Mauritius’ are the two varieties of pineapplegrown in India. It is grown in Karnataka, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Kerala, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland. It is also cultivated on limited areas in the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu, Goa and Orissa. Though Assam has the largest area under pineapple West Bengal is the largest producer. Karnataka, West Bengal and Bihar are the three states reporting high productivity. Overall, Indian productivity of 15.9 t/ha poorly compares with the world average of 22.58 t/ha.

The statewise area, production and productivity of pineapple in India  are presented below. In Kerala, total area under pineapple cultivation is 10200 hectares with a production of about 85500 t and productivity 8.4 t/ha during 2010-11. The major pineapple producing district of Kerala, Ernakulam accounts for more than 60% of the area under pineapple cultivation. In Ernakulam district pineapple cultivation is more concentrated in certain areas of Vazhakulam.

State-wise Area of Pineapple in India
(1987-1988, 1991-1992 and 1996-1997 to 2010-2011) (In ‘ 000 Hectare)

States/UTs 87-88 91-92 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11
West Bengal

9.6

8.9

9.1

9.2

9.6

10.3

10.4

11.5

11.8

11.7

12.9

13.4

13.4

9.5

9.6

9.6

9.9

Assam

4.9

12.1

14

14.1

13.6

13.8

14

14.1

13.9

14.2

12.8

14.6

12.4

12.7

12.9

14.2

14.0

Karnataka

2

2.1

2.4

2.144

10.6

3.2

2.9

3.0

2.8

3.0

Tripura

#

3.7

3.7

4.1

5

5.2

6.2

6.3

6.3

6.8

6.8

Bihar

2.1

2.6

3.3

3.3

3.7

3.9

4

4.1

4.1

4.2

4.2

4.2

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.7

4.9

Manipur

6.6

6.5

9.5

9.4

10

10

10

10.3

10.6

10.6

10.6

2.6

12

8.5

8.6

12.1

12.2

Meghalaya

7.9

8.5

9

9.3

9.3

9.4

9.2

9.2

9.4

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.6

9.6

10.8

10.8

9.7

Kerala

4.7

5

5

8.6

9

9.5

9.5

11.2

11.5

12.7

12.8

12.5

12.5

12.5

9.8

10.2

Nagaland

1

2.1

2.3

1.8

2.5

2.9

3

2

2

2

2

3.7

3.7

3.7

Arunachal Pradesh

1.1

3.4

7.2

7.2

7.3

7.3

7.3

#

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.9

8.3

9.3

9.3

10.9

10.9

Goa

0.4

0.3

Orissa

0.7

0.7

Mizoram

0.4

0.4

Tamil Nadu

#

#

1.24

0.7

0.4

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.8

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

0.2

0.2

Others

13.5

9.4

9.5

9.5

10.3

9.3

10.9

9.8

2

2.2

2.3

2

3.7

1.9

2.4

2.2

3.5

India

45.7

57.1

68.7

69.3

74.2

75.5

78.2

77.2

79.8

80.9

82.8

85.4

82.6

80.0

83.7

91.9

88.7

Note : # : Included in Others. Source : National Horticulture Board. (p.54) & Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 6238, dated 04.05.2010. & Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. (p.255)

State-wise Production of Pineapple in India
(1987-1988, 1991-1992 and 1996-1997 to 2010-2011) (In ‘ 000 MT)

States 87-88 91-92 96-97 97-98 98
-99
99
-00
00
-01
01
-02
02
-03
03
-04
04
-05
05
-06
06
-07
07
-08
08
-09
09
-10
10
-11
West Bengal

177.4

210.8

236.6

246.8

283.9

280.2

279.5

322

340.7

320.6

349.8

379.2

372.1

283.2

283.9

293.8

303.7

Assam

48.9

177.6

207.8

217.3

209

207.8

216.1

220

212.6

220.7

198.6

241

191.9

195.7

225.1

223.0

220.7

Karnataka

81.2

86.5

118.2

129.4

88.6

190.5

177.4

186.3

177.2

186.1

Tripura

82.7

82.6

93.5

105.1

106.4

115.8

116.9

101.2

117.5

153.3

Bihar

31.2

39.6

84

88

92.1

97

100.5

101.3

90

104.6

122.5

108

121.1

126.8

119.5

125.0

129.4

Manipur

82.2

26

66

66

69.8

69

69.9

75.6

77.2

88.6

88.6

134.5

100.7

72.4

78.5

103.5

104.4

Meghalaya

61.1

74.2

90

80.4

80.4

82.5

81.7

81.7

83.3

91.7

91.7

83.7

85

85.3

106.8

106.8

86.0

Kerala

6.1

46.3

46.7

46.7

57.3

73.7

68.3

68.3

83.9

95

101.9

109.3

102.4

102.4

102.4

80.8

85.5

Nagaland

1.7

12.4

59.2

63.7

60

71.1

82.9

83.2

24.8

24.8

24.8

24.8

57.5

57.5

57.5

Arunachal Pradesh

5.9

12.9

29.4

29.4

30.2

32

32

#

33.9

35.6

36.3

37

37.8

37.8

0.0

34.4

Goa

5.6

44.5

Odisha

8.0

9.0

Mizoram

2.4

2.8

Tamil Nadu

#

#

38.4

23.1

14.7

21.7

23.4

22.752

24.8

31.0

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1.1

1.1

Others

163.5

168.7

104.9

98.8

123.7

112.1

290.2

66.3

17.9

17.8

15.5

18.9

21.5

36.6

41.9

44.8

54.5

India

578

768.5

924.6

937.1

1006.4

1025.4

1221.1

1182.3

1171.7

1234.2

1278.9

1353.1

1362.1

1244.6

1340.8

1386.8

1415.4

Note: # : Included in Others. Source : National Horticulture Board. (p. 54) & (p.103), Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 6238, dated 04.05.2010. & Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. (p.255)

 

Selected State-wise Productivity of Pineapple in India
(1987-1988, 1991-1992 and 1996-1997 to 2010-2011) (MT/Hectare)

States 87-88 91-92 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11
West Bengal

18.5

23.7

26

26.8

29.6

27.2

26.9

28

28.8

27.4

27.2

28.3

27.8

29.7

29.7

30.5

30.6

Assam

10

14.7

14.8

15.4

15.4

15.1

15.4

15.6

15.3

15.5

15.5

16.5

15.5

15.4

17.5

15.7

15.8

Karnataka

40

40.4

49.3

51.8

8.4

59.9

61.7

61.7

63.3

62.0

Tripura

22.3

22.3

22.8

21.1

20.5

18.7

18.6

16.1

17.3

22.6

Bihar

14.9

15.2

25.5

26.7

24.9

24.9

25.1

25

22.1

24.9

29.1

25.5

27.2

27.6

25.5

26.4

26.5

Manipur

12.5

4.0

6.9

7.0

7.0

6.9

7.0

7.3

7.3

8.4

8.4

52.1

8.4

8.5

9.1

8.6

8.6

Meghalaya

7.7

8.7

10

8.6

8.6

8.8

8.9

8.8

8.9

9.7

9.7

8.8

8.9

8.9

9.9

9.9

8.9

Kerala

9.9

9.3

9.3

6.7

8.2

7.2

7.2

7.5

8.3

8

8.6

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.4

Nagaland

12.4

28.2

27.7

33.3

28.4

28.6

28.2

28.8

12.4

12.4

12.4

4.5

15.5

10.0

15.5

Arunachal Pradesh

5.4

3.8

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.4

4.4

#

4.4

4.6

4.6

4.7

4.6

4.1

4.1

3.2

3.2

Tamil Nadu

#

#

30.9

33

32.9

33.2

33.2

33.1

Others

8.1

6.9

9.7

5.8

19.1

17.3

20.6

15.6

India

12.6

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.6

13.6

15.6

15.3

14.7

15.8

15.5

16.0

15.1

15.9

Note : # : Included in Others. Source : National Horticulture Board. (p.54) & Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. (p.255)

Districtwise Pineapple area (ha), production (t) and productivity (t/ha) in Kerala

District

2008-09

2009-10

  Area Prodn Prodty Area Prodn Prodty
Thiruvananthapuram

313

2074

6.63

195

1313

6.73

Kollam

198

1437

7.26

176

1187

6.74

Pathanamthitta

155

948

6.12

150

1014

6.76

Alappuzha

85

491

5.78

86

476

5.53

Kottayam

1689

9769

5.78

1286

7064

5.49

Idukki

1008

8917

8.85

1076

8224

7.64

Ernakulam

6108

59864

9.80

6020

57464

9.55

Thrissur

81

521

6.43

56

362

6.46

Palakkad

102

498

4.88

123

548

4.46

Malappuram

165

700

4.24

160

687

4.29

Kozhikode

199

969

4.87

192

957

4.98

Wayanad

54

229

4.24

35

118

3.37

Kannur

166

971

5.85

220

1107

5.03

Kasaragod

84

494

5.88

52

256

4.92

Kerala Total

10407

87882

8.44

9827

80777

8.22

Source : Department of Economics and Statistics, Kerala State

 

Contribution to Diet:

The pineapple fruit has vitamins, minerals, fibre and enzymes that are good for the digestive system and helps in maintaining ideal weight and balanced nutrition.  Pineapples are a good source of vitamin C and can be eaten raw or used after cooking.  Pineapple has minimal fat and sodium with no-cholesterol.  Food value of pineapple is given below.

 

Food value of pineapple

Moisture (%)

87.8

Minerals (mg/100 g)
Carbohydrate (%)

10.8

Potassium

37

Fibre (%)

0.5

Sodium

34.7

Protein (%)

0.4

Magnesium

33

Mineral matter (%)

0.4

Calcium

20

Fat (%)

0.1

Sulphur

20

Calories (kcal./100 g)

48

Chlorine

13

Vitamins (mg/100 g) Phosphorus

9

Vitamin C

39

Iron

2.42

Carotene

18

Manganese

0.56

Colin

8

Copper

0.13

Thiamine

0.2

Zinc

0.11

Riboflavin

0.2

Chromium

0.011

Niacin

0.1